Mascoma LLC is leading the development of bio and process technology for cost-effective conversion of cellulosic biomass and is forming a broad set of commercialization partnerships to bring these innovations into production. Replacing gasoline with cleaner, low-cost, renewable ethanol has been the target of research and development over many years. Recent advancements in enzymes, organisms and production technologies and processes are now making this a reality. Recent advances in cellulosic ethanol R&D have led to the development of a new generation of enzymes, microbes and processes for economical conversion of cellulosic feedstocks into ethanol. With the combination of R&D advancements and increases in oil prices and energy market instability, the market is ready for new companies, such as Mascoma, to move cellulosic ethanol from lab and demonstrations to commercial-scale operation and long-term cost advantages in the renewable fuel market.